12 Word Text Hero Instinct

Have you ever questioned how to cause the hero instinct in your guy?

 

 Urge him to  have a good time

Allowing your man to  delight in activities that bring him  happiness  as well as relaxation is crucial in  causing his hero instinct. By  motivating him to have fun, you are  providing him the freedom to explore his passions and  accomplish his  requirement for a meaningful life. This  will certainly make him feel alive and appreciated in the relationship.

 

Well, you’re in luck because I’ve got 11 powerful ways to awaken his inner hero and make him love you much more. The hero instinct is an idea in connection psychology that taps into a male’s innate desire to be respected, required, as well as to live a deliberate life. By recognizing this impulse and also executing these approaches, you can produce a deep and also long-term link with your companion.

Regard him in front of his friends

One reliable way to trigger the hero instinct is by showing respect towards your male, especially in front of his buddies. By recognizing as well as valuing his strengths and qualities, you are enhancing his self-confidence as well as making him feel valued. This can ignite his hero instinct and strengthen his commitment to the relationship.

Make certain he knows you’re delighted

An additional method to set off the hero instinct is by sharing your happiness. Guys have a natural disposition to want to make their companion delighted, and also when they see the favorable impact they have on you, it reinforces their sense of objective. Letting him recognize that his initiatives are making you happy will make him feel required and also appreciated.

Encourage him to have a good time

Enabling your male to enjoy tasks that bring him joy as well as relaxation is vital in triggering his hero instinct. By motivating him to have fun, you are offering him the liberty to discover his enthusiasms as well as satisfy his demand for a purposeful life. This will certainly make him feel to life as well as appreciated in the connection.

Let him take care of you

Guys have an inherent desire to shield as well as provide for their enjoyed ones. By permitting your male to look after you, you are triggering his hero instinct. Whether it’s requesting his assistance, seeking his advice, or leaning on him for assistance, allowing him satisfy this duty will certainly strengthen his connection to you.

How to Trigger His Hero Instinct

The hero instinct is rooted in three organic vehicle drivers: the requirement to really feel needed, appreciated, as well as to live a significant life with purpose. Comprehending these chauffeurs can help you use his hero instinct and grow your bond with him. By applying the approaches mentioned over, you are making him really feel valued, respected, as well as needed, therefore raising his wish to devote totally to the connection.

For even more in-depth information on exactly how to trigger the hero instinct, check out this post. Bear in mind, recognizing and nurturing his heroic side can cause a more powerful as well as extra satisfying partnership. So proceed, ignite his hero instinct, as well as see your connection thrive.

What is the hero instinct?

The hero instinct is a principle in relationship psychology that can make a guy fall in love as well as commit totally. It focuses on the concept that men have a deep-rooted biological drive to really feel needed, appreciated, as well as to live a meaningful life with purpose.

To trigger the hero instinct, I can take particular actions that will make him really feel valued, valued, as well as required, eventually boosting his desire to commit to the relationship.

Several of the methods to activate this reaction include challenging him, turning to him for help, truly praising him, sending him a 12-word text, offering him my support, increasing his self-confidence, showing my appreciation, commemorating his success, allowing his masculine energy to flow, and also letting him secure me.

It’s crucial, however, not to mother him. Guys wish to feel like a hero, not a child. Instead, I ought to motivate him to care for me. By respecting him in front of his friends and making him feel needed in my life, I can tap into his hero instinct and grow our link.

Activating the hero instinct is not about adjusting or managing a man. It’s concerning recognizing his natural needs as well as providing an atmosphere that satisfies them. By doing so, I can develop a stronger bond with my partner and also cultivate a much deeper sense of love and also dedication in our relationship.

The Three Biological Drivers

The need to feel required

As human beings, we all have an integral wish to be required by others. This requirement, rooted in our biology, is specifically true for males. The hero instinct is basically the symptom of this organic vehicle driver, driving guys to really feel valued and vital in a connection.

By urging your companion to look after you as well as showing appreciation for his initiatives, you can cause his hero instinct and make him feel needed in your life.

The demand to feel highly regarded

Men, in certain, prosper on sensation valued by their partners. To set off the hero instinct, it is essential to treat your partner with authentic respect, especially in front of his buddies.

The need for a purposeful life with objective

The hero instinct thrives on their search of a purposeful life. By enabling your partner’s masculine energy to move and commemorating his accomplishments, you can help him meet this demand.

Activating the hero instinct in your partner involves tapping into 3 essential biological drivers: the requirement to feel required, respected, and also to live a purposeful life with objective. By supporting these demands through actions such as valuing his assistance, seeking his recommendations, and boosting his self-confidence, you can reinforce the bond between you and make him really feel valued, respected, and dedicated in the relationship.

When it comes to men, one effective aspect to think about is their hero instinct. By causing the hero instinct, you can create a deep bond and make him fall in love with you.

Allow’s check out 11 reliable means to activate his hero instinct.

Challenge Him as well as Seek Help

Do not think twice to ask for his aid when you really need it. By getting to out to him, he will certainly feel valued and also important.

Real Praise and also Appreciation

Everyone loves to be applauded truly. Commemorate his achievements and make him feel pleased, enhancing his self-confidence in the procedure.

Value his Masculinity as well as Protectiveness

Enable his manly energy to beam by making area for him to deal with you. Let him safeguard you and also make you really feel secure. In return, he will certainly really feel needed as well as satisfied.

Regard as well as Support

Respect is vital in any kind of partnership. Make certain to show him regard, especially in front of his close friends.

Interaction and Appreciation

Keep open communication and also guarantee he understands that you more than happy in the connection. An easy motion, such as a 12-word message revealing your admiration, can go a long way in making him feel loved.

Motivate Fun as well as Celebrate His Individuality

Every connection requires enjoyable and excitement. Motivate him to engage in activities he delights in, and also commemorate his individuality. This will certainly permit him to feel free and valued.

Seek His Advice

Men take pride in their problem-solving abilities. Consult him for recommendations as well as point of views, making him really feel engaged and valued. By doing so, you will reinforce his hero instinct.

Challenging him

Don’t hesitate to challenge him

One method to set off the hero instinct is by challenging him. Males have a natural drive to overcome obstacles as well as verify their capacities.

Whatever it might be, allow him understand that you rely on his abilities as well as depend on him to succeed.

Offer him possibilities to rise to the occasion

Another means to set off the hero instinct is by providing him opportunities to be your knight in radiating shield. By looking to him for assistance, you are satisfying his requirement to really feel needed and valued. Whether it’s requesting for his suggestions on a problem you’re dealing with or seeking his assistance throughout a hard time, allowed him recognize that his point of view and also assistance are vital to you.

Recognize his success

Male prosper on recognition as well as appreciation, so genuinely acknowledging his achievements is one more means to trigger the hero instinct. Whether it’s a tiny triumph or a major turning point, take the time to commemorate his success. Allow him feel that his effort and also efforts are seen and appreciated.

Welcome his competitive nature

Guys are normally affordable beings. To set off the hero instinct, urge him to complete and also showcase his skills. Whether it’s a friendly video game or an expert obstacle, develop opportunities for him to channel his affordable energy. This will not only improve his confidence however also ignite his hero instinct as he strives ahead out on the top.

Asking for his guidance

One efficient way to activate a male’s hero instinct is by requesting for his recommendations. Guy normally have a wish to really feel needed and respected, as well as when you seek his input, it take advantage of this reaction.

When you ask for his recommendations, it shows him that you value his viewpoint and depend on his judgment. It enables him to step into a duty of importance, making him feel like a hero in your life. This simple act can make him feel appreciated as well as desired, which consequently reinforces the bond in between you.

Whether it’s seeking his suggestions on a work-related obstacle, an individual problem, or perhaps something as easy as what to use for an unique event, entailing him in your decision-making process will activate his hero instinct.

It’s important, nevertheless, to really value his advice and also not just use it as a manipulation technique. Put in the time to listen diligently as well as consider his suggestions. Even if you do not end up following his guidance, sharing thankfulness for his input will make him really feel recognized and respected.

The next time you locate on your own in need of guidance or understanding, do not hesitate to transform to him. Requesting his guidance not just use his hero instinct but also strengthens the psychological connection in between you, fostering a stronger and also a lot more committed relationship.

Making him feel needed

Among the key facets of setting off a guy’s hero instinct is making him really feel required. This taps into a male’s innate desires to shield, give, as well as be of service to others. When a man really feels valued, respected, as well as required, it can significantly enhance his need to devote fully to a connection.

In this section, I will look into some efficient ways to make your guy really feel required, hence triggering his hero instinct.

1. Don’t mom him

While it’s natural to intend to look after your partner, stay clear of surrounding him with excessive mothering propensities. Permit him the area to deal with challenges as well as fix troubles independently. As opposed to entering to save the day, reveal your rely on his capacities and let him take the lead.

2. Ask for his advice

Make him feel valued by seeking his input as well as advice on matters that are important to you. This not just demonstrates your count on his judgment yet likewise equips him to add to your life. By actively listening and also considering his tips, you confirm his opinions, fueling his sense of significance.

Men, similar to every person else, require time to unwind as well as reenergize. By urging him to pursue activities that bring him joy and fulfillment, you recognize his need for personal joy. Allow him understand that his health matters to you, and also support his choices when it comes to his free time.

Regard is a fundamental aspect of causing a male’s hero instinct. Openly acknowledging as well as valuing his strengths, accomplishments, and high qualities in the visibility of his buddies improves his self-confidence and also affirms his heroic identification. This not just grows your bond however likewise solidifies his dedication to the partnership.

Keep in mind, an effective partnership calls for common respect and also understanding. By carrying out these approaches, you can take advantage of your man’s hero instinct and also promote a deep, loving connection.

In conclusion, the hero instinct is a powerful concept in connection psychology that can make a male fall in love as well as dedicate fully. By comprehending as well as causing this instinct, you can develop a stronger psychological link with your companion.

To trigger the hero instinct, there are 11 manner ins which you can implement. Allow him take care of you. By allowing him to be there for you and also looking after your requirements, you make him really feel valued, valued, and required, which raises his need to commit to the partnership.

Next, make sure he recognizes you’re delighted. Revealing your joy and also satisfaction in the connection will certainly make him really feel accomplished and pleased, activating his hero instinct.

Another method to trigger the hero instinct is by not mothering him. Enabling him to be independent and take duty for his own activities will make him really feel a lot more equipped as well as manly.

In addition, it is necessary to respect him in front of his buddies. Publicly recognizing his achievements and also qualities in front of others will enhance his confidence and strengthen his commitment in the direction of you.

Asking for his suggestions is another efficient means to cause the hero instinct. By seeking his viewpoint as well as valuing his input, you are attracting his demand to really feel reputable as well as required.

Overall, understanding and also triggering the hero instinct can significantly improve your connection and create a deep emotional bond. By applying these 11 ways, you can use his primal wishes to really feel needed and appreciated, making him drop a lot more crazy with you.

So go on as well as embrace your internal heroine as well as see your companion end up being the hero you’ve always desired for.

The hero instinct is a concept in partnership psychology that taps right into a guy’s innate need to be appreciated, required, and also to live a deliberate life. The hero instinct is rooted in 3 organic drivers: the requirement to really feel required, valued, and also to live a significant life with function. By respecting him in front of his friends and making him feel required in my life, I can touch into his hero instinct and also strengthen our link.

The hero instinct is essentially the indication of this biological chauffeur, driving males to really feel valued and also essential in a connection.

One of the key elements of activating a guy’s hero instinct is making him feel needed.

 

Communication and Appreciation

Maintain open communication and ensure he  recognizes that you are happy in the connection. A  basic gesture, such as a 12-word text sharing your  admiration, can go a long way in making him  really feel  enjoyed.

 

  • What Love Island Season Are We On
  • Who Left The Love Island Villa
  • Where Is Tasha From Love Island From
  • Did Claudia Leave Love Island Australia
  • Tasha Love Island Can She Hear
  • Where Are Love Island Now
  • Who Is The Cast Of Love Island 2022
  • Love Island Is Ron And Lana Still Together
  • What Episode Of Love Island Does Zara Sleep With Alex
  • Love Island Canada Where To Watch
  • You May Also Like

    12 Word Text Hero Instinct

    Have you ever wondered how to trigger the hero instinct in your man?

     

     Motivate him to  enjoy

     Permitting your  male to  enjoy activities that bring him  delight  as well as  leisure is  important in  causing his hero instinct. By encouraging him to have fun, you are  providing him the freedom to explore his  enthusiasms and fulfill his  demand for a  significant life. This  will certainly make him feel to life  as well as valued in the  partnership.

     

    Well, you’re in good luck due to the fact that I’ve got 11 effective methods to awaken his inner hero as well as make him love you even more. The hero instinct is a principle in relationship psychology that use a guy’s innate desire to be appreciated, needed, and also to live a deliberate life. By understanding this instinct as well as implementing these approaches, you can develop a deep and also lasting link with your partner.

    Regard him before his pals

    One efficient means to cause the hero instinct is by showing respect towards your man, specifically in front of his buddies. By acknowledging and valuing his staminas as well as top qualities, you are enhancing his self-confidence as well as making him really feel valued. This can ignite his hero instinct and enhance his commitment to the partnership.

    See to it he knows you’re delighted

    Another method to set off the hero instinct is by expressing your happiness. Guys have an all-natural inclination to wish to make their partner pleased, and when they see the favorable impact they carry you, it reinforces their feeling of purpose. Allowing him know that his initiatives are making you happy will certainly make him feel required and valued.

    Motivate him to have fun

    Enabling your male to delight in tasks that bring him delight and also relaxation is critical in triggering his hero instinct. By motivating him to have a good time, you are offering him the flexibility to discover his passions as well as accomplish his need for a purposeful life. This will make him feel alive as well as valued in the relationship.

    Allow him look after you

    Males have an integral wish to safeguard and provide for their liked ones. By allowing your guy to take care of you, you are causing his hero instinct. Whether it’s asking for his aid, seeking his recommendations, or leaning on him for assistance, allowing him meet this function will certainly deepen his link to you.

    Exactly how to Trigger His Hero Instinct

    The hero instinct is rooted in 3 organic drivers: the demand to feel required, respected, and to live a meaningful life with function. Comprehending these chauffeurs can assist you tap into his hero instinct as well as deepen your bond with him. By implementing the approaches pointed out over, you are making him feel valued, valued, and also required, thus increasing his wish to dedicate fully to the partnership.

    For more extensive information on exactly how to trigger the hero instinct, take a look at this short article. Bear in mind, understanding and nurturing his heroic side can result in a stronger and more fulfilling partnership. So go ahead, spark his hero instinct, as well as view your link flourish.

    What is the hero instinct?

    The hero instinct is an idea in connection psychology that can make a man fall in love as well as dedicate totally. It focuses on the concept that guys have a deep-rooted organic drive to feel needed, respected, and to live a significant life with purpose.

    To set off the hero instinct, I can take specific actions that will make him feel valued, appreciated, and also needed, ultimately raising his desire to devote to the relationship.

    Some of the methods to cause this impulse include challenging him, counting on him for aid, truly commending him, sending him a 12-word text, offering him my support, improving his self-confidence, revealing my appreciation, celebrating his accomplishments, enabling his masculine energy to stream, and letting him protect me.

    Men want to really feel like a hero, not a youngster. By respecting him in front of his friends and also making him feel required in my life, I can touch right into his hero instinct as well as strengthen our link.

    Causing the hero instinct is not concerning controling or controlling a man. It’s about comprehending his inherent needs and also giving an atmosphere that satisfies them. By doing so, I can develop a more powerful bond with my partner as well as cultivate a deeper sense of love and also commitment in our partnership.

    The Three Biological Drivers

    The demand to feel needed

    As humans, most of us have an inherent wish to be needed by others. This requirement, rooted in our biology, is especially true for guys. The hero instinct is essentially the indication of this organic driver, driving guys to feel valued and necessary in a connection.

    By motivating your partner to look after you and also showing appreciation for his efforts, you can activate his hero instinct as well as make him feel needed in your life.

    The demand to really feel highly regarded

    Respect is a basic facet of any kind of healthy and balanced relationship. Men, particularly, prosper on sensation respected by their partners. To trigger the hero instinct, it is crucial to treat your partner with real respect, specifically before his good friends. By acknowledging his success as well as highlighting his strengths, you will fuel his wish to commit fully.

    The requirement for a significant life with objective

    Every specific needs to lead a purposeful life loaded with function. Males are no exception. The hero instinct prospers on their pursuit of a purposeful life. By permitting your partner’s manly power to stream as well as commemorating his success, you can aid him accomplish this need. It is necessary not to undermine his sense of purpose by mothering him or eliminating his independence.

    Triggering the hero instinct in your partner includes taking advantage of 3 essential organic vehicle drivers: the requirement to feel required, respected, and to live a significant life with purpose. By nurturing these demands through activities such as valuing his support, seeking his advice, and enhancing his self-confidence, you can strengthen the bond between you and make him feel valued, appreciated, and devoted in the relationship.

    In every connection, it is crucial to recognize the needs and also needs of your companion. When it pertains to guys, one effective aspect to consider is their hero instinct. This impulse is driven by 3 organic factors– the need to feel wanted, respected, as well as to lead a purposeful life with function. By causing the hero instinct, you can develop a deep bond and also make him fall for you.

    Allow’s explore 11 efficient methods to cause his hero instinct.

    Challenge Him and Seek Help

    Don’t be reluctant to ask for his assistance when you really need it. By getting to out to him, he will really feel valued and also vital.

    Real Praise and also Appreciation

    Everybody enjoys to be praised truly. Express your adoration for his top qualities as well as achievements. Celebrate his accomplishments as well as make him feel happy, enhancing his self-confidence while doing so. By acknowledging his initiatives, you will certainly inspire him to be the very best variation of himself.

    Worth his Masculinity as well as Protectiveness

    Enable his masculine energy to radiate by making area for him to take care of you. Let him shield you and make you feel secure. In return, he will feel needed and also fulfilled.

    Regard as well as Support

    Regard is essential in any kind of partnership. Make sure to reveal him respect, especially in front of his friends.

    Interaction as well as Appreciation

    Maintain open communication and guarantee he understands that you are happy in the partnership. A simple motion, such as a 12-word text sharing your appreciation, can go a long way in making him feel enjoyed.

    Motivate Fun and Celebrate His Individuality

    Every relationship requires enjoyable and also enjoyment. Encourage him to participate in activities he enjoys, as well as celebrate his originality. This will enable him to feel free as well as valued.

    Seek His Advice

    Guys take satisfaction in their analytical capabilities. Consult him for guidance and also point of views, making him feel involved as well as valued. By doing so, you will strengthen his hero instinct.

    Challenging him

    Do not hesitate to test him

    One means to set off the hero instinct is by testing him. Men have an all-natural drive to get rid of difficulties and also confirm their capacities. By offering him with a challenge, you are using his inherent desire to dominate obstacles and also display his skills. It could be a physical obstacle and even a psychological one.

    Whatever it might be, let him know that you count on his capacities as well as count on him to prosper.

    Provide him possibilities to rise to the occasion

    One more method to trigger the hero instinct is by giving him opportunities to be your knight in radiating shield. By relying on him for assistance, you are pleasing his requirement to feel required and valued. Whether it’s asking for his guidance on a problem you’re dealing with or seeking his support throughout a challenging time, let him know that his viewpoint and support are crucial to you.

    Recognize his accomplishments

    Men flourish on recognition as well as appreciation, so truly acknowledging his achievements is one more means to trigger the hero instinct. Whether it’s a small victory or a major turning point, take the time to celebrate his achievements. Let him really feel that his effort and efforts are seen and valued.

    Embrace his affordable nature

    Guys are normally affordable beings. To trigger the hero instinct, motivate him to complete as well as showcase his skills. Whether it’s a pleasant video game or a professional obstacle, develop chances for him to channel his affordable energy. This will certainly not just enhance his confidence but additionally ignite his hero instinct as he aims ahead out on top.

    Requesting his guidance

    One effective means to cause a male’s hero instinct is by requesting his guidance. Male naturally have a need to feel needed and valued, and also when you seek his input, it take advantage of this instinct.

    When you request for his recommendations, it reveals him that you value his opinion as well as trust fund his judgment. It permits him to step into a role of importance, making him feel like a hero in your life. This straightforward act can make him feel appreciated and desired, which subsequently reinforces the bond between you.

    Whether it’s seeking his advice on an occupational obstacle, an individual problem, or even something as simple as what to put on for a special celebration, entailing him in your decision-making procedure will certainly trigger his hero instinct.

    It’s crucial, however, to genuinely value his suggestions and not simply use it as an adjustment technique. Make the effort to listen attentively as well as consider his tips. Even if you do not wind up following his advice, sharing appreciation for his input will certainly make him feel acknowledged as well as respected.

    The following time you discover on your own in need of assistance or insight, do not think twice to turn to him. Asking for his advice not only take advantage of his hero instinct however also strengthens the psychological link in between you, fostering a stronger and also more committed relationship.

    Making him feel needed

    One of the key aspects of triggering a man’s hero instinct is making him really feel needed. This use a male’s inherent needs to shield, supply, and also be of service to others. When a guy really feels valued, valued, and also required, it can considerably enhance his wish to commit totally to a partnership.

    In this area, I will certainly delve into some effective ways to make your guy feel needed, thus causing his hero instinct.

    1. Do not mommy him

    While it’s natural to want to deal with your partner, stay clear of surrounding him with excessive mothering tendencies. Allow him the room to deal with challenges as well as resolve issues individually. As opposed to jumping in to save the day, reveal your trust in his abilities and also let him take the lead.

    2. Request for his advice

    Make him really feel valued by seeking his input and also advice on issues that are important to you. This not only demonstrates your rely on his judgment however additionally encourages him to add to your life. By proactively listening as well as considering his ideas, you confirm his point of views, fueling his sense of significance.

    Male, just like every person else, require time to relax and also recharge. By urging him to pursue activities that bring him joy as well as satisfaction, you recognize his requirement for personal happiness. Allow him understand that his health matters to you, and also sustain his choices when it involves his leisure time.

    Respect is a fundamental facet of setting off a male’s hero instinct. Publicly recognizing as well as valuing his staminas, success, as well as top qualities in the visibility of his friends boosts his self-confidence and also verifies his brave identity. This not only grows your bond but additionally strengthens his commitment to the connection.

    Remember, an effective partnership calls for shared regard and also understanding. By implementing these techniques, you can tap into your man’s hero instinct and also cultivate a deep, loving link.

    Finally, the hero instinct is an effective idea in connection psychology that can make a man fall in love as well as commit totally. By comprehending and also activating this instinct, you can develop a more powerful emotional connection with your partner.

    To set off the hero instinct, there are 11 manner ins which you can implement. Allow him take care of you. By allowing him to be there for you and taking care of your needs, you make him feel valued, respected, and needed, which increases his desire to devote to the relationship.

    Next off, see to it he understands you’re satisfied. Revealing your happiness and also contentment in the relationship will certainly make him really feel accomplished and also satisfied, causing his hero instinct.

    Another method to trigger the hero instinct is by not mothering him. Enabling him to be independent and take obligation for his own activities will make him feel much more empowered and manly.

    Additionally, it is essential to respect him before his pals. Openly recognizing his success and also top qualities in front of others will improve his self-confidence and reinforce his commitment in the direction of you.

    Requesting his recommendations is one more efficient way to trigger the hero instinct. By seeking his point of view and also valuing his input, you are interesting his requirement to feel reputable and needed.

    On the whole, understanding and activating the hero instinct can significantly enhance your relationship and produce a deep psychological bond. By applying these 11 ways, you can use his primitive wishes to feel required and valued, making him drop even more crazy with you.

    So go ahead as well as welcome your inner heroine as well as enjoy your companion become the hero you’ve constantly desired for.

    The hero instinct is a principle in partnership psychology that taps right into a male’s inherent wish to be respected, needed, and to live a purposeful life. The hero instinct is rooted in 3 biological motorists: the demand to feel needed, valued, and also to live a purposeful life with function. By respecting him in front of his close friends and making him really feel required in my life, I can tap into his hero instinct and grow our connection.

    The hero instinct is basically the manifestation of this biological vehicle driver, driving males to feel valued as well as important in a partnership.

    One of the essential elements of activating a man’s hero instinct is making him really feel needed.

     

    Communication  as well as Appreciation

     Preserve open  interaction  and also  guarantee he knows that you  more than happy in the  partnership. A straightforward motion, such as a 12-word text expressing your  admiration, can go a long way in making him  really feel  enjoyed.

     

  • Love Island What To Watch On
  • Has Claudia Left Love Island
  • Who Was In Season 3 Love Island
  • Why Cant I Watch Love Island On Itv Hub
  • What Date Does Love Island Finish 2022
  • Love Island Game How To End Up With Will
  • Love Island Will Heart Rate Challenge
  • Has Andrew From Love Island Had Surgery
  • Did Andy Wait For Mady Love Island
  • Do Love Island Play Music
  • You May Also Like

    -